(Standish, CHAOS Manifesto, 2013)Defined failure as the projects deserted before finishing point. (Nelson, 2007)Grouped classic mistakes into four categories "people, process, product, technology".
For example, spending too much time running behind users for requirements and without documenting them, engage in outsourcing provider without knowing how to manage them.
  • Process mistakes: Wasting time in the front end to define requirements, inability to manage outsourcing suppliers and underestimating scope of the project.
 
  • People Mistake: Assigning wrong people to the project (lack of capabilities required for the project), lack of team skills (no ability to coordinate work), unmotivated staff.
 
  • Technology Mistakes: Being more optimistic that technology will solve all the problems.
 
  • Product mistakes: Adding features to the product that are not required and will not be used by users instead of adding features that are necessary leads to scope creep.
A retrospection of 99 projects in 74 different organizations among the projects (45%) process mistake, (43%) people mistakes, (8%) product mistakes, and (4%) technology mistake. (JEFFREY K. PINTO AND SAMUEL J. MANTEL, 1990) Conducted a study on 97 projects classified as failures by the projects' managers or the related organizations. The author found that the important factors associated with failure depended on the way in which failure is defined implies that it is essential to know considerably more about how project managers identify failure [and success] and, certainly how the organization makes decisions on the matter. (Black, 1996)Conducted a survey of 70 engineers who were asked to rate reasons for project failures and the most common reasons included: changed specifications of the project, incompetent project management, unrealistic scheduling and need of executive management support and involvement.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The important factors for successful project management were first studied by (SEELIG, 1967). Project Management Institutes Government Program Management Study collected information from forty different programs across a wide variety of government agencies found that 81% of program managers at U.S. government agencies said that stakeholders engaged throughout the project had a high success rate(PMI, 2010).(SLEVIN, 1987)Stated that these success factors are based theoretically rather than empirically, which might suggest few of the factors to be nonspecific in scope while others to address distinct issues of interest in each project implementation. (Cooke-Davies, 2002) Discussed the corporate context of project success. (Tukel, 1996) Grouped the elements of success that determine the success of project implementation into four groups: the project management and team member factor; the external environment factor; the organizational factor and the implementation project factor. Many researchers have identified the factors associated with project success.Few of these success factors are discussed in this paper.

FAILURE FACTORS

SUCCESS FACTORS